The goal of the Nature Census is to collect detailed, scientifically-grounded information about Latvia's natural resources, their quantity, diversity, distribution, and condition.

In the terms of the project, natural capital includes natural landscapes with grasslands, forests, swamps, coastal areas and sand dunes, rivers, lakes, exposed rock formations, and the diversity of species living in these habitats. The function of the Nature Census project is to determine the amount and distribution of the various kinds of natural capital in Latvia.

The evaluation of Latvia's natural resources is made possible by the Nature Conservation Agency (NCA). The goal is neither to expand, nor diminish the protected areas in Latvia. The goal of the project is to acquire objective information about the distribution and condition of biotopes in the European Union, as well as endangered species and other natural resources. Conservation plans for 25 already existing, protected natural areas and five endangered species will be developed as a part of the nature census, and the prerequisites for the conservation of biological diversity and the protection of ecosystems in Latvia will also be determined.